Stratolaunch Systems Teams With Orbital Sciences

Stratolaunch
Stratolaunch Carrying A Falcon Rocket from SpaceX
Image Credit: Stratolaunch

Previously, NSSPhoenix reported in December 2011 on the new Stratolaunch design for air launched orbital satellite services. Stratolaunch is the brainchild of billionaire philanthropist and Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen.

Allen enlisted Scaled Composites from Mojave, California to build the twin boom mothership, pictured above. The 222,000-kilogram airplane with a 117-meter wingspan would be capable of flying 2,400 kilometers before deploying a rocket capable of delivering 2,300 kilograms to geosynchronous orbit. Space Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) agreed to study the feasibility of turning their Falcon 9 rocket into an air-launched system. Dynetics Corp. of Huntsville, Alabama was chosen to build the mating and integration system.

Allen, the author of the SpaceShipOne project that won the Ansari X-Prize for two consecutive sub-orbital flights of 100 kilometers within two weeks in 2004, said that he expected to spend “at least an order of magnitude more” on Stratolaunch than he spent on SpaceShipOne.

In late November, SpaceX and Stratolaunch parted ways, agreeing that the effort to retool the SpaceX assembly line into one capable of building a four or five engine Falcon with the associated structural and engineering changes, was too great a change to the SpaceX business model in return for the financial possibilities.

Subsequently, Stratolaunch approached Orbital Sciences, a company with a long history of air launched orbital missions dating back to 1990. Orbital has agreed to study providing the launch vehicle for Stratolaunch. Currently, Orbital’s Pegasus system can put 450 kilograms of satellite into low-Earth orbit. But there has been only a single launch in the past four years, and the only remaining manifest is for a 2013 launch of NASA’s Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph space telescope.

Orbital is currently working on their Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) Antares rocket, which relies on a liquid fueled first stage powered by Ukrainian built rocket engines, to fulfill a contract with NASA to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).

Stratolaunch has been engaged with Orbital for several months and have contracted with Orbital to evaluate configurations of Orbital systems capable of satisfying Stratolaunch requirements.

Dragon – Capture and Berthing – Images

Capture of the Dragon was completed by Sunita Williams and Akihiko Hoshide at 3:56 AM Phoenix time (10:56 UTC). Suni: “Looks like we tamed the dragon, she’s on board with us.”

Referring to the fact that Dragon is capable of carrying powered equipment to and from the space station, the space station crew reported that they had captured Dragon and were looking forward to the chocolate-vanilla swirl ice cream in the freezer aboard the space craft.

Sunlight
Dragon Attached to ISS – In The Sunlight Above Earth
Image Credit: NASA TV

At 4:45 Phoenix time, the space station crew is preparing for Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) inspection.

The CBM has been inspected and has been confirmed to be in good condition. Since the ISS is out of range of KU communication, there will be a 10-15 minute wait until the crew can move the robotic arm to the pre-install position.

Moving
Dragon Moving Carefully to the Berthing Position on the Harmony Node
Image Credit: NASA TV

In the image below, the Dragon Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is in the upper right and the Harmony Node is in the lower left. The ISS crew is waiting to receive permission to move the Dragon to the pre-install position.

CBM
Dragon Common Berthing Mechanism
Image Credit: NASA TV

At 5:15 AM Phoenix time (12:15 UTC), Dragon is being moved to the pre-install position.

Pre-Install
Dragon Being Moved to the Pre-Install Position
Image Credit: NASA TV

The ground crew is preparing to give the go ahead to berth the Dragon. Currently the Flight director hand-over is in work for transition from Orbit-1 to Orbit-2.

The flight director has begun to continue the process leading up to berthing. Suni is checking that the thrusters have been safed.

At 5:41 AM, the Dragon is again in motion, moving toward the bottom of the Harmony module.

And Suni has confirmed contact: “We are ready to latch”.

RTL
Dragon Makes Contact and is Ready To Latch
Image Credit: NASA TV

First stage capture is complete and the bolts have been tightened. The robotic arm has been “limped”, but not disengaged.

Second stage capture is underway, 272 Miles above the South Atlantic. With the re-establishment of solid comm, Suni can proceed.

At 6:03 AM (13:03 UTC), installation has been confirmed.

RTL
Dragon Installed on the International Space Station
Image Credit: NASA TV

Graphic showing all the vehicles currently attached to the International Space Station.

RTL
Dragon in the International Space Station Parking Lot
Image Credit: NASA TV

Dragon – Capture By ISS – CRS-1

Rendezvous
Dragon 12 Meters from the International Space Station
Image Credit: NASA TV

Acronyms.

NASA TV provides coverage of the SpaceX/Dragon rendezvous and grappling. SpaceX will also provide coverage.

Latest Key times:

  • 5:13am et/2:13am pt – 250 meter hold (go/no-go)
  • 6:25am et/3:25am pt – 30 meter hold (go/no-go)
  • 6:57am et/3:57 am pt – 10 meter hold (go/no-go for capture)
  • 7:17am et/4:17 am pt – Capture/grapple

And we are at the 10 meter capture point at 3:43 AM Phoenix time. About 10 minutes ahead of schedule.

NASA has given GO for capture.

From Dragon
Dragon Ready for Grapple by Canadarm on the International Space Station
Image Credit: NASA TV

One Meter to go.

Capture complete at 3:56 AM Phoenix time. Everything has gone according to plan and ahead of schedule.

One Meter
Dragon One Meter From Canadarm on the International Space Station
Image Credit: NASA TV

Capture
Dragon One Captured By Canadarm on the International Space Station
Image Credit: NASA TV

CloseUp
Close Up of Dragon One Attached to the Canadarm
Image Credit: NASA TV

Sunlight
Dragon Attached to ISS – In The Sunlight Above Earth
Image Credit: NASA TV

Dragon On Course For The International Space Station

Rendezvous
Dragon Rendezvous with the International Space Station
Image Credit: SpaceX

While a lot of attention has been drawn to the drama of the launch of the SpaceX Falcon 9 Sunday night and the engine anomaly, the Dragon space craft is making steady progress toward a rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS) on Wednesday morning.

Day 2: Tuesday: Dragon Phasing – Approaching the Space Station

  • Coelliptic burn places Dragon in a circular orbit

Day 3: Wednesday: Height Adjustment Maneuvers to R-Bar and Grappling

  • (R-Bar – Radial Bar – is an imaginary line connecting station to the center of the Earth)
  • Height adjust burns start adjusting altitude higher toward station
  • COTS Ultra-high Frequency Communication Unit (CUCU) and on-board UHF communication system between Dragon
    and ISS is configured
  • Height adjust burn: Dragon begins burns that bring it within 2.5 km of station (go/no-go)
  • Dragon receives and sends information from/to the CUCU unit on station
  • Height adjust burn brings Dragon 1.2 km from station (go/no-go)
  • Height adjust burn carries Dragon into the station’s approach ellipsoid (go/no-go)
  • Dragon holds at 250 meters (go/no-go) for confirmation of proximity sensors targeting acquisition
  • Dragon begins R-Bar Approach
  • Dragon holds at 30 meters (go/no-go)
  • Dragon holds at capture point, 10 meters below the station (go/no-go)
  • Crew captures Dragon using the station’s robotic arm (SSRMS)
  • Dragon is attached to the station

Day 4: Thursday:

  • Hatch Opening

And from Facebook, SpaceX says:

Tonight, Dragon will make its final approach to the station, passing a series of GO/NO-GO points determined by both Mission Control in Houston and the SpaceX team in Hawthorne. It will also establish its close-range guidance systems, comprised of LIDAR and thermal imagers. If all goes according to plan, at approximately 5:30AM ET, Dragon will be permitted to enter the Keep-Out Sphere (KOS), an imaginary circle drawn 200 meters (656 feet) around the station that prevents the risk of collision, and continue its approach to the capture point. Grapple is currently targeted for 7-7:30AM ET; however, this time is variable. Live coverage will begin at 6:30AM ET at spacex.com/webcast

This means 3:30 AM Phoenix time with grappling scheduled for roughly 4:00 to 4:30 AM tomorrow morning.

Grappling
Dragon Grappled by Canadarm on the the International Space Station
Image Credit: SpaceX

For greater detail on the process, see this post on the COTS 2,3 mission last May.

Acronyms.

SpaceX Falcon Engine Anomaly – Day 1

Today, SpaceX released the following statement:

Approximately one minute and 19 seconds into last night’s launch, the Falcon 9 rocket detected an anomaly on one first stage engine. Initial data suggests that one of the rocket’s nine Merlin engines, Engine 1, lost pressure suddenly and an engine shutdown command was issued immediately.

We know the engine did not explode, because we continued to receive data from it. Our review indicates that the fairing that protects the engine from aerodynamic loads ruptured due to the engine pressure release, and that none of Falcon 9’s other eight engines were impacted by this event.

As designed, the flight computer then recomputed a new ascent profile in real time to ensure Dragon’s entry into orbit for subsequent rendezvous and berthing with the ISS. This was achieved, and there was no effect on Dragon or the cargo resupply mission.

An update has been released, and the second sentence of the second paragraph now reads: “Panels designed to relieve pressure within the engine bay were ejected to protect the stage and other engines. Our review of flight data indicates that neither the rocket stage nor any of the other eight engines were negatively affected by this event.”

The current, complete press release is here.

Information on Pintle Injector Rocket Engines is here.

At left below is an image of the Falcon 9 and the nine Merlin 1C engines. Each corner engine is protected by the triangular fairing.

The image on the right shows the engine fairing (dark, triangular object) tumbling behind the engine compartment.

Fairing
Falcon 9 Rocket – Engine Fairings
Image Credit: SpaceX

Anomaly 01
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – Fairing Failure
Image Credit: You Tube

Successful Dragon Launch – And Engine 1 Anomaly

SpaceX successfully place both the Dragon space capsule (on a resupply mission to the ISS) and the Orbcomm satellite into orbit this evening.

During the launch, however, there was an anomaly associated with the #1 engine (Merlin 1c). See this slow motion video posted by Zephyrus271:

Below is a series of still images from the video showing the anomaly. The first shows the 9 engines burning normally at 1:19 into the flight.

Anomaly 01
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 01
Image Credit: You Tube

The second shows an initial flash.

Anomaly 01
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 02
Image Credit: You Tube

The third shows a wider flame outside the normal stream.

Anomaly 03
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 03
Image Credit: You Tube

The fourth shows the initial wide flame dissipating.

Anomaly 04
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 04
Image Credit: You Tube

The fifth shows possible debris along the upper side of the plumes of the engines. At the very top, right is visible a large piece of debris.

Anomaly 05
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 05
Image Credit: You Tube

The sixth shows the large piece of debris (dark, triangular shape) in the engine plume, as well as other possible debris.

Anomaly 06
Falcon 9 Engine #1 Anomaly – 06
Image Credit: You Tube

The Falcon 9 was designed for engine out capability, as well as loss of an engine in an accident. It seems that this episode may be the proof of concept. Scary thought to have an engine fail in this manner. But both payloads were delivered.

Well done SpaceX.

SpaceX has released the following statement:

“Falcon 9 detected an anomaly on one of the nine engines and shut it down. As designed, the flight computer then recomputed a new ascent profile in realtime to reach the target orbit, which is why the burn times were a bit longer. Like Saturn V, which experienced engine loss on two flights, the Falcon 9 is designed to handle an engine flameout and still complete its mission. I believe F9 is the only rocket flying today that, like a modern airliner, is capable of completing a flight successfully even after losing an engine. There was no effect on Dragon or the Space Station resupply mission.”

This is not the first Merlin 1C engine anomaly. SpaceX acknowledged an “oxidizer-rich” condition that shut down an engine on the first Dragon flight in December 2010.

CRS-1 Launch

LOX Loading
Loading of Liquid Oxygen aboard Falcon stage 1 and 2
Image Credit: NASA / KSC Video Feed

With less than three (3) hours to go, loading of liquid oxygen aboard the first and second stages of the Falcon 9 rocket has been completed.

Here is the pre-launch schedule for major events:

  • – 7:30:30 Vehicles are powered on
  • – 3:50:00 Commence loading liquid oxygen (LOX)
  • – 3:40:00 Commence loading RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene)
  • – 3:15:00 LOX and RP-1 loading complete
  • – 0:10:00 Falcon 9 and Dragon terminal count auto-sequence started
  • – 0:02:30 SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for launch
  • – 0:02:00 Range Control Officer (USAF) verifies range is go for launch
  • – 0:01:00 Command flight computer to begin final pre-launch checks. Turn on pad deck
    and Niagara water
  • – 0:00:40 Pressurize propellant tanks
  • – 0:00:03 Engine controller commands engine ignition sequence to start
  • 0:00:00 Falcon 9 launch

At 3:05 PM Phoenix time, we are at T-2 hours 30 minutes.

At 4:35 pm we are at T-60 minutes and counting. A weather briefing is schedule momentarily by the Launch Weather Officer (LWO). Currently there are no significant issues being worked.

LWO – Weather is good, visibility is expected to be unlimited, there are clouds around 4,000 feet, winds are low at 5-10 knots and the chance of launch has been raised to 80%.

T-80 Minutes
T-80 minutes and Counting
Image Credit: NASA TV

At T-35 minutes, a variety of system and range condition checks are underway. There are no issues at the moment.

At T-30 minutes, the Launch Director notes that Dragon can carry powered cargo. One such item is a freezer stocked on this trip with chocolate-vanilla swirl ice cream for the crew aboard the space station.

At T-25 minutes, weather is green. LWO says there are no weather violations at this time.

T-20 and counting.

At T-14 minutes, Falcon switched to internal power. A complete readiness poll is due in two minutes.

T-12 minutes and all systems are go for terminal countdown to begin at T-10:30.

T-10.

Merlin engines are beginning chill down. At T-8, Dragon will go to internal power. All systems are go and the weather is green.

T-5 minutes.

Stage one and stage two on internal power.

LOX topping has terminated.

T-2:30 – go for launch.

T-2:00 – range office has go for launch.

T-60 seconds and all systems are go.

T-30 seconds.

Launch.

At T+60 seconds all systems are good. Vehicle is supersonic.

All Merlin engines are nominal.

Second stage chill down.

MECO.

Separation of first and second stages.

Second stage ignition for a six minute burn.

Fairing jettisoned correctly.

3.1 K/sec.

All systems nominal at 4:42.

SpaceX – CRS1 – Dragon Resupply to ISS

CRS-1
CRS-1
Image Credit: SpaceX

The first of the SpaceX Dragon resupply missions is scheduled for launch today, 7 October, at 5:35 PM Phoenix time (8:35 PM EDT and 00:35 UTC).

You can view the SpaceX webcast here (coverage starts at 4:55 PM Ohoenix time), watch it on NASA TV.

The SpaceX / NASA prelaunch press conference is at 3:00 PM Phoenix time on NASA TV.

The schedule for the first 10 minutes:

  • 00:00 Falcon 9 launch
  • 00:25 Max Q (moment of peak mechanical stress on the rocket)
  • 03:00 1st stage engine shutdown/main engine cutoff (MECO)
  • 03:05 1st and 2nd stages separate
  • 03:12 2nd stage engine starts
  • 03:52 Dragon nose cone jettisoned
  • 09:11 2nd stage engine cutoff (SECO)
  • 09:46 Dragon separates from 2nd stage

Weather outlook is for 40% chance of unfavorable weather, mostly a thick cloud violation, with some chance of flight through precipitation.

Cargo for the ISS on this mission includes:

  • 260 pounds of crew food, clothing, low-sodium food kits and other crew supplies.
  • 390 pounds of science gear, including a low-temperature Glacier freezer for experiment samples, fluids and combustion facility hardware, a commercial generic bioprocessing apparatus, cables for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer and research gear for the Japanese and European space agencies.
  • 225 pounds of space station hardware, including crew health care system components, life support system parts, filters and electrical components.
  • 7 pounds of computer gear.

Return to Earth:

  • 163 pounds of crew supplies.
  • 518 pounds of vehicle hardware.
  • 123 pounds of computer gear, Russian cargo and spacewalk equipment.
  • 866 pounds of science gear and experiment samples, including 400 samples of crew urine.

You can download the SpaceX press kit (pdf).

Korea – Tribute to Hayabusa

At NSS Phoenix, we have been noticed by the space faring community in Korea. Although the translation by Google is perhaps notional rather than idiomatic, nevertheless, we share the sentiments. The quote below references “The Little Spacecraft That Could“.

Hayabusa arc while returning to Earth has been battered. Burned body, while the plunge into Earth’s atmosphere, prior to separating the capsule placed on the landing area was the only Australian woomera.

Pretty nice chronicle the related description that I saw the translation, and in addition introduced here is moderation. The original sources are listed below.

Our sentiments were expressed here:

When last we left our intrepid explorer, she had returned her capsule to Earth, nevermore to be seen or heard.

Hayabusa – Retrieved

The re-entry capsule from the Hayabusa mission has been found and begun its trip back to Japan for analysis. The Associated Press reports:

The capsule was airlifted late Monday afternoon to the town of Woomera, where it would be prepared over several days for air freighting to Japan, NASA scientist Scott Sandford said by telephone from the scientists’ base in Woomera.

Sandford said he had not seen the capsule but that photographs indicated it had made a soft desert landing.

Once back in Japan, the capsule will be transferred to a containment lab where it will be opened. It will be a considerable time before the contents are known and analyzed.

Capsule Retrieved
The Re-entry Capsule from Hayabusa.
Image Credit: AP

Capsule Retrieved
The Capsule and Parachute from Hayabusa.
Image Credit: JAXA

If the capsule does contain fragments of the asteroid Itokawa, it would be the first sample from an asteroid. Three other extraterrestrial sources have provided samples. Both the United States and Russia have returned samples from the Moon. The US did it during the Apollo manned lunar program, and the Russians did it using robotic sample and return spacecraft with its Luna program.

The second source came from the American Stardust probe, which was launched on February 7, 1999. It flew past comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004 and collected samples from the comet’s tail. The capsule re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere and landed on January 15, 2006 in Utah’s Great Salt Lake desert.

The third source was the Genesis spacecraft. The United States launched Genesis on August 8, 2001, and crash-landed on September 8, 2004, after sampling the Solar Wind from beyond the orbit of the Moon.

An extended discussion by the BBC can be found in their Science and Environment section.